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Anti-Aging Nutrition Glossary - S


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Saccharin

An artificial sweetener. It is nearly 700 times sweeter than sugar, yet leaves an aftertaste. It is not metabolized by the human body. It is useful in diabetic diets in which the patient must lower sugar intake. The FDA has listed saccharin as an 'anticipated' human carcinogen. This means that in certain individuals, the sweetener may increase the risk of cancer.

Salatrim

This is a reduced calorie fat that has only five calories per gram, as opposed to nine normally.

SAM-e (S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine)

SAM-e is a naturally occurring molecule in virtually all body tissues and fluids. It is fundamentally important in a number of biochemical reactions involving enzymatic transmethylation, contributing to the synthesis, activation and metabolism of such compounds as hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids and certain drugs.

Saw Palmetto

Herb shown to have protective properties for the liver. It is also shown that Saw Palmetto reduces the size of epithelial tissue in the prostate, especially in the transitional zone.

Selenium

Trace mineral with potent antioxidant effects; component in sulfur bearing amino acid production and fetal development during pregnancy; recent clinical evidence of cancer preventive properties.

Shark Cartilage

See Bovine cartilage.

Sodium

Also known as Salt. Regulates body fluid volume, transports amino acids to cells and plays a role in muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Sodium is an important mineral found in our bones, in the fluids surrounding our cells and in the cardiovascular system. Sodium, with potassium, assists nerve stimulation and regulated water balance. It is also involved in carbohydrate absorption.

The average person requires a minimum of one tenth of a teaspoon of salt a day. Any athlete who sweats needs more. A teaspoon a day of salt does not cause problems, nor does eating fresh foods high in natural salt such as fish, carrots, beets and poultry. Easting processed and junk foods, can lead to high, potentially dangerous levels of sodium intake.

Somatotropin

Known in the medical community as GH or Growth Hormone. It is a powerful anabolic hormone that affects all systems of the body and plays an important role in muscle growth. It is a peptite hormone, which is composed of 191 amino acidslinked together. It is rapidly metabolized by the liver and has a half-life in the blood of approximately 17 to 45 minutes.

Soy Protein

Primary vegetable source of protein found in protein powders; lower in nitrogen retention and BCAA's than whey and egg, but higher in arginine and glutamine and contains isoflavones with antioxidant properties.

St. John's Wort

Scientific name: Hypericum Performatum. A plant herb that is used to relieve mild depressive symptoms, sleep disorder, and anxiety, although probably not effective against serious depression. In large doses, it may be unsafe as it can make the skin and eyes extra sensitive to light.

Steroids

Steroids are synthetic derivatives of the hormone testosterone that allow the user to gain muscle mass and strength rapidly. In addition to their muscle building effects, anabolic steroids increase the oxidation rate of fat, thus giving the user a more vascular and defined appearance.

Stevia

A herb from Brazil and Paraguay that is a good replacement for sugar and artificial sweeteners. You can also bake with it.

Stevioside

An artificial sweetener. Extracted from the herb Stevia. It is 300 times sweeter than sugar, but has a strong aftertaste.

Sucralose

An artificial sweetener. Approved by the FDA in 1998. It is 600 times sweeter than table sugar, it is made from a process that begins with regular sugar. You can bake with it. Sucralose was discovered in 1976. Sucrolose is derived from sugar through a patented, multistep processes that selectively substitutes three choline atoms for three hydrogen oxygen groups on the sugar molecule.

The tightly bound chlorine atoms create a molecular structure that is esceptionally stable and is approx 600 times sweeter than sugar. The body does not recognize it as sugar or another carbohydrate. The sucralose molecule passes through the body unchanged, it is not metabolized and is eliminated after consumption. Sucrolose has no calories. The acceptable daily intake for sucralose is 5 mg / kg of body weight per day.

Sugar Alcohols

This group of sweeteners includes Mannitol, Sorbitol and Xylitol. Although found in fruit, they are commercially synthesized and not extracted from natural sources. Sugar alchohols provide a reduced glycemic response (no steep hikes in blood sugar). Sugar alcohols are absorbed slowly, but incompletely. This can cause diarrhea in some people.


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