Listed below are links to descriptions of drugs
and nutrients which have been proposed as therapies to slow and/or
reverse human aging.
The only method proven to slow aging and extend
lifespan in mammals is caloric restriction of a nutrient-rich
diet, which has been demonstrated to work in rats, mice, and is
now being studied in monkeys. While some people practice caloric
restriction as a means of extending lifespan, its primary value
is as a model to explore how aging can be controlled. Although none
of the therapies in this section have been proven to retard aging,
there is suggestive scientific evidence that they may have this
Medicine & Therapies
Table of Contents
A | B | C | D
| E | F | G | H
| I | J | K | L
| M | N | O |
P | Q | R | S
| T | U | V | W | X | Y
Oxitriptan or 5-Hydroxy-Tryptophan is the
precursor to Serotonin (the brain neurotransmitter linked with pleasure
and fulfillment). Oxitriptan is often used in place of L-tryptophan
for sleep assistance, depression, and alcohol withdrawal.
Acarbose is used (with diet only or diet
and other medications) to treat type 2 (noninsulin- dependent) diabetes
(high blood sugar). Acarbose works by slowing the action of certain
chemicals that break down food to release glucose (sugar) into your
blood. Slowing food digestion helps keep blood glucose from rising
very high after meals.
A naturally occurring nutrient in the body,
acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) transports fats into the mitochondria.
It occurs in many common foods, including milk. Studies have shown
that ALC may help protect the brain by nourishing NMDA-sensitive
glutamate receptors, which normally decline with age. ALC has also
been shown to help prevent the formation of lipofuscin, a potassium
age pigment, and to increase cerebral blood flow.
Adrafinil acts to stimulate brain activity
only when stimulation is required. Modafinil is the latest, more
potent analogue of Adrafinil. Both drugs act on brain Alpha 1 post
synaptic receptors and make them more susceptible to norepinephrine,
thus increasing alertness and concentration. They do not appear
to affect other brain functions.
also known as lipoic acid, is a highly potent antioxidant that counteracts
reactive free radicals in the mitochondria, the power plants of
cells where energy for all cellular activities is generated. Some
scientists believe that mitochondrial free radicals play an important
role in human aging, and have theorized that extra amounts of free-radical
inhibiting compounds such as alpha lipoic acid may be able to slow
aging. Alpha-Lipoic Acid is also effective in recycling other antioxidants
such as Vitamin E back into their original form after they detoxify
free radicals. There also is evidence that alpha lipoic acid can
reduce glycation damage due to excess glucose in the blood, which
may be involved in aging, and that it can improve patients with
diabetes, which has been described as an accelerated form of aging.
Aminoguanidine may have the potential to slow the aging process
by protecting the proteins that make up the human body. Proteins
such as the skin proteins (collagen and elastin), eye lens protein,
nerve protein and kidney proteins. All the body's proteins deteriorate
with advancing age and more so in diabetes (diabetics have 2-3 times
the number of cross-linked proteins when compared to non-diabetics
and this has lead credence to the fact that diabetes can be viewed
as a form of accelerated aging).
Aniracetam acts on the central nervous
system (CNS), stimulating the learning process and the memory. Pharmacological
studies have shown that Aniracetam stimulates the functions of certain
neuronal receptors by means of glutamic acid, bringing about memorization
processes (AMPA receptors) and protection of nerve cells (metabotrophic
receptors). Clinical studies have shown specific therapeutic activity
in elderly patients affected by alterations of the cognitive functions.
Both long and short term memory improvement have seen in addition
to learning, attention span, alertness, concentration, reasoning
and absent mindedness.
- Adenosine Triphosphoric Acid
Organic compound composed of adenine, the
sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major
energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes
such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
Since the 1930's it has been known that a
diet restricted in calories, but otherwise rich in nutrients, dramatically
extends the life span of experimental animals. Over two thousand
studies have confirmed the effectiveness of caloric restriction.
Carnosine supplements have been popular among
bodybuilders and athletes mainly for improving muscular fatigue.
Now, based on over 800 studies, it's being viewed as one of the
most important supplements for longevity based on its amazing properties.
It is also a neuroprotectant, a modulator of enzyme activities,
and a chelator of toxic metals.
removes lipofuscin, potassium age pigment from the brain, heart
and skin. Appearances of lipofuscin in the skin are referred to
as liver, or age spots. Lipofuscin occurs in much higher levels
in Alzheimer's patients than in their counterparts, and some theories
relate brain and memory function to the ability of potassium to
enter and exit brain cells. As we age, this ability is reduced and
potassium levels rise. Centrophenoxine can also increase production
of brain RNA and aid in a patient's oxygen consumption and carbon
Chelation therapy is used in patients with
heavy metal toxicity. An intravenous (IV) synthetic amino acid (EDTA)
is used to isolate (chelate) heavy metals such as iron and lead,
removing them from the bloodstream and tissues. Many believe chelation
therapy, along with a proper nutritional program, aids in the breakdown
of the plaques that line the arteries and cause arteriosclerosis.
The end result of this type of treatment in some people is increased
blood flow and a marked decrease of excessive deposits of plaques
in arteries and organs such as the liver, kidneys, heart and brain.
Chromium picolinate is a nutritional
supplement that works to increase the efficiency of insulin to optimal
levels. Gaining increased popularity in the United States,
this supplement has been touted a miracle mineral, one advertised
to have myriad effects including weight loss, mood enhancement,
energy promotion, increase in life span, and even the prevention
of acne (Krzanowski, 1996).
Co-enzyme Q-10, or ubiquinone, may improve
the functioning of the immune system, increase the body's resistance
to stresses, including bacteria and viruses, and improve the condition
of cardiac patients. Co-enzyme Q-10's major function in the body
is its action as a co-factor in the production of ATP in the mitochondria.
Studies have shown that many patients with heart conditions had
lower levels of Co-enzyme Q-10 than their healthy counterparts,
and that increasing the levels improved the patient's condition
and mental outlook. Co-enzyme Q-10 may also stimulate the immune
system to protect against carcinogens.
A product specifically designed to treat
aging eye disorders such as cataracts, Conjunctisan A contains natural
lysates, which purport to improve eye conditions by stimulating
the natural healing and repair processes. Regular, longer use of
conjunctisan A may improve eyesight in cataract sufferers, as well
Cysteine is a sulfur containing non-essential
amino acid and is closely related to cystine, as cystine consists
of two cysteine molecules joined together. It is an unstable nutrient
and easily converts to cystine, but this does not cause a problem,
since both can convert into the other as required by the
Deprenyl is a drug that has been widely used
to treat Parkinson's disease. In Parkinson's disease, dopamine,
a major nerve transmitter, decreases due to the action of two enzymes,
nonoamine oxidases (MAOS). MAO B occurs in the brain; MAO A occurs
outside the brain and breaks up some amino acids present in food,
thus serving a necessary purpose. Deprenyl inhibits only MAO B,
and thus in combination with L-Dopa may be used to treat Parkinson's.
Deprenyl may also act against several toxic chemicals produced when
MAO B destroys dopamine and may act as an antidepressant.
In 1980, Russian scientists reported that
the drugs Dilantin (phenytoin) and Phenformin had extended animal
lifespan by 25% and 23% respectively in a strain of mice prone to
autoimmune disease. Dilantin is an FDA-approved drug commonly prescribed
to normalize electrical activity in epilepsy patients. Studies around
the world have shown that Dilantin is useful for a wide variety
of conditions including depression, headache, and neurologic disorders.
Phenformin is a prescription antidiabetic drug, which lowers blood
sugar in patients suffering from this disease, which suggests that
it might have antiglycosylation effects. Both drugs have serious
side effects, which makes them relatively poor candidates for long-term
Originally marketed as a weight loss supplement,
DHEA is now promoted as being beneficial for treating a wide variety
of medical conditions, including cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer's,
and AIDS. It is also purported to have anti-aging qualities. Studies
in rodents and test tubes have shown daily doses of DHEA can prevent
or benefit such conditions as cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis,
diabetes, lupus, obesity, and viral infections.
DMAE (Dimethylaminoethanol) is a chemical naturally produced in
the human brain. It is thought to be used by the body in converting
the precursor choline to the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. This
is the basis for the reasoning behind the theory that supplementing
with DMAE will enhance brain activity.
Estrogen is the female sex hormone. Before
menopause, the ovaries produce estrogen. Low levels of estrogen
have been linked to osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, declining cognitive
function and increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen replacement
therapy has been shown to decrease incidences of osteoporosis and
arteriosclerosis, improve cognitive function and increase life span.
Ginkgo, derived from the leaves of the ginkgo tree, stimulates brain
activity by increasing levels of dopamine and improves the flow
of blood to the brain and all other organs by dilating, or relaxing
the arteries and veins. Rich in flavonoids, antioxidants that protect
the body against free radicals, ginkgo has also been shown to prevent
blood clots by inhibiting blood cells from sticking together.
Ginkgo has been used in Oriental medicine for
thousands of years. European researchers have recognized its properties
since the 1970s and today ginkgo is widely prescribed in Europe
for maladies ranging from headaches to hemorrhoids. Studies have
shown ginkgo may have significant anti-aging benefits: improving
mental performance and circulation, as well as inhibiting free radicals,
thus preventing heart disease, cancer and arthritis.
Side Effects and Contraindications: There are
no known side effects, or contraindications.
Distribution: Ginkgo is available without a prescription
in natural food stores and most drug stores. The recommended dosage
is one 60mg capsule, or tablet, three times daily, as the effects
only last a few hours at a time.
Gingko may soon be available by prescription in
the United States. Harvard chemists are testing ginkgo as a potential
drug for asthma sufferers and to help prevent the rejection of transplanted
For 5000 years, the Chinese have revered this herb as a cure-all
and antidote to the ravages of aging. Ginseng is primarily a stimulant
and some researchers speculate that it may indirectly stimulate
the production of stress hormones that can increase stamina. Ginseng
also contains choline, a chemical found in the brain that is essential
for learning and memory retention. Studies have found that people
taking ginseng make fewer mistakes and complete tasks more quickly
than those who do not.
According to studies performed by Soviet scientist
L.I. Brekhman, Ph.D., ginseng helps the body to cope better with
stress by acting as an adaptogen, regulating and normalizing blood
sugar and blood pressure levels.
Researchers at Japan's Kanazawa University found
that compounds called unpurified saponins found in ginseng inhibited
the growth of cancer cells and even converted diseased cells into
normal cells. In addition, ginseng contains antioxidants, known
to prevent cellular damage due to free radicals.
Other anti-aging benefits of ginseng are that
it helps to raise levels of beneficial high-density lipoprotein
or "good" cholesterol. In addition, ginseng may help to
control some of the side effects of menopause, such as hot flashes.
Distribution: Ginseng, preferably the American,
or Siberian varieties, is available in natural food and drug stores,
and comes in many forms including capsules, tea and powder. Always
take ginseng one hour before eating. In capsule form, take one up
to three times daily. For tea, drink one cup daily. If you use powder,
mix 5 to 10g in liquid daily. Avoid the Chinese panax variety as
it may be too strong.
Side Effects and Contraindications: As ginseng
has a mildly estrogenic effect on the body, in rare cases it may
cause vaginal bleeding in post menopausal women. People with high
blood pressure, or irregular heartbeat, should not take ginseng.
Excessive use may make some people very jittery.
Be careful not to exceed the recommended dosages. As vitamin C can
interfere with the absorption of ginseng, wait two hours before
or after taking ginseng to take vitamin C.
HGH - Human Growth
Human Growth Hormone (hGH) is secreted by
the pituitary gland. It causes growth and repair of body tissues,
including the muscles, the skin, the kidneys, and more. HGH levels
naturally rise sharply throughout puberty, peak at about age 20,
and then slowly decrease. HGH has been used to treat children who
fail to make sufficient growth hormone and to treat adults with
It has become evident during the past few years that homocysteine
(Hcy), a sulfur-containing amino acid involved in methionine metabolism,
is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease-is
joining the ranks of dyslipidemia, hypertension and smoking. Interestingly,
it was recognized more than 30 years ago that individuals with an
inborn error of metabolism, cystathionine betasynthase deficiency,
had a 50 to -100 fold elevation in circulating Hcy and excreted
large amounts of Hcy in the urine. Premature vascular disease and
implicated subclinical deficiencies of B-vitamins are contributing
factors. It was estimated that a 5 umol/L increase in serum Hcy
is associated with 60 to 80 percent increased risk of coronary artery
An important anti-aging and nootropic drug,
hydergine may help protect the brain from free radical damage and
oxygen starvation. Hydergine maintains the brain's optimal metabolism
of oxygen. Oxygen is a free radical scavenger and generator. Free
radicals cause age-associated damage, and at optimal levels, oxygen
will neutralize more free radicals than it generates. Hydergine
may also stimulate the growth of dendrite nerve fibers, which may
have a possible link to intelligence. Also, recent studies suggest
that hydergine may reduce Senescent Cell Antigen (SCA), a destructive
auto-antibody appearing more frequently in elderly cells. SCA damages
cells and finally destroys them.
Idebenone is an analogue of Coenzyme Q10.
In most respects, Idebenone shares its traits with Coenzyme Q10.
Like Coenzyme Q10 is might be useful for aging. It differs from
it in some important ways, which may make it more useful. Under
certain circumstances, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may become a pro-oxidant.
These circumstances are conditions in which hypoxia or lack of oxygen
occurs. In cases of shock, heart attack, stroke, or poor circulation,
CoQ10 auto-oxidizes and unleashes massive amounts of various free
radicals that damage delicate tissues and because CoQ10 is necessary
for electron transport and ATP (chemical energy) production, cellular
death may ensue. Idebenone, on the other hand, suppresses free radicals
and continues ATP production in hypoxic situations. This may make
it a useful supplement for individuals at risk for those conditions.
Intravenous Vitamins and Minerals
You are what you absorb. The body's ability to absorb nutrients
can be inhibited by many factors, including previous medicine and
antibiotic use, yeast, or bacterial overgrowth, as well as prevailing
nutritional deficiencies. To ensure absorption of nutrients, intravenous
vitamins and minerals are given. By receiving the necessary nutrients
intravenously, a person's body is able to utilize them and receive
their benefits immediately. Intravenous vitamins and minerals have
been used in treatment of various chronic conditions, including
cancer, fatigue and immune dysfunction.
In 1977, George Cotzias, et al. reported a 50% increase in the mean
lifespan of rats fed very high doses of L-Dopa, the precursor to
the neurotransmitter dopamine. In another study in rats, it was
shown that the incidence of movement disorders among aged rats were
almost totally reversed by L-Dopa, which enabled the rats to swim
almost as well as young rats. L-Dopa is used to treat Parkinson's
disease patients, with major improvements usually occurring for
several years followed by a steep decline in function coupled with
adverse side effects. The problem with L-Dopa as an antiaging drug
is its side effects at high doses, which include abnormal heart
rhythms, movement disorders, mental disturbances, and a greater
risk of at least one type of cancer.
A member (along with beta-carotene) of a family of plant pigments
called carotenoids. There are more than 600 different carotenoids,
but lycopene and the carotenes are the most important ones. They
are the pigments that give leaves, tomatoes and other plants their
bright colors. Lycopene is the best antiaging candidate of this
class of compounds because it is the most efficient quencher of
an especially dangerous free radical called singlet oxygen.
Magnesium helps prevent osteoporosis, protects against heart disease,
lowers blood pressure and acts as an antioxidant. The mineral also
may help prevent diabetes and can ease symptoms of premenstrual
Distribution: People who do not regularly eat
magnesium-rich foods (such as whole grains, nuts, seeds and legumes)
should probably take a 200mg to 300mg supplement each day. Multi-vitamins
typically contain only 100mg of the mineral, so additional magnesium
supplementation may be necessary.
Side Effects and Contraindications: Magnesium
oxide should be avoided in most cases, as most people do not tolerate
it well. Better choices for magnesium supplementation are magnesium
chloride, magnesium Aspartate, magnesium gluconate and magnesium
More than 600mg to 700mg of magnesium daily can
cause diarrhea. Most people can tolerate as much as 500mg of magnesium
daily, if they have normal kidney function.
Anyone with kidney problems, heart failure, or
a history of heart attacks, should consult a physician before considering
Melatonin, a hormone made by the pineal gland,
affects many organs, including the thymus, the pituitary and the
hypothalamus. Melatonin plays a major role in setting the internal
clock. Blind people use melatonin to improve their ability to sleep
and to regulate their circadian cycle. It is also used to combat
jet lag. Studies on mice suggest that melatonin may play an important
role in increasing life span.
Metformin may improve insulin use and help prevent age-related onset
diabetes. It may increase the sensitivity of peripheral tissues
(like muscles) to the effects of insulin, restoring the effects
of glucose and insulin to younger physiological levels. Metformin
may also be a useful dieting aid as it acts to stabilize sugar levels,
thus preventing sugar highs and lows and sugar cravings.
Metformin's anti-aging benefits may also include
decreasing risk of age-related adult-onset diabetes, prevention
of sugar cravings, improved body composition with improved insulin
use, stabilization of sugar levels and slowing of the effects of
Pharmacology: Synonyms: La-6023 (Metformin) Chemical
Name: 1,1 Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride: Molecular Formula: C(4)H(11)N(5),HCL
Molecular Weight: 165.6 CAS Registry: 657-24-9 (Metformin):1115-70-4
Side Effects and Contraindications: Side effects
in healthy aging individuals are rare, but may include nausea, loss
of appetite, and very rarely, vomiting, stomach pain and diarrhea.
Patients with diabetes type I and II sometimes take doses as high
as 3 grams a day, in which case side effects may include hypoglycemia,
or lactic acidosis.
Use of Metformin is contraindicated when combined
with Thiazide, Cimetidine, diuretics, or other anti-hypertensive
products, which could cause renal malfunctioning. Also contraindicated
in individuals with ketonuria, serious hepatic and renal disorders,
serious cardiovascular problems, serious respiratory problems, suprarenal
insufficiency, chronic alcoholism, serious dystrophic illness, acute
hemorrhaging, gangrene, diabetes with previous episodes of lactic
acidosis, or hypersensitivity to Metformin.
Distribution: Metformin is supplied in 250mg,
500mg, and 850mg tablets under the trade names Devian TM , Dextin,
Diaberit TM, Diabetex, Diabetosan, Diabex, Diaformin, Glucamet,
Glucophage, Glucophate S, Mediabet, Mesorit, Metforal, Metiguanide
Note: Because metformin may cause the malabsorption
of vitamin B12, patients should supplement their diets liberally
with vitamin B12.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NADH, is a coenzyme made from
vitamin B2, or niacin. Its present in all living cells. As
a coenzyme, NADH serves an important role in helping enzymes to
function as they should. (An enzyme is a protein that works like
a catalyst in the body to prompt chemical changes in other substances;
breaking down food into energy is an example.)
(see Vitamin B5)
Sometimes also spelled Pikamilon or Pikamilone, this is a Russian
developed nootropic. It is in essence Niacin (vitamin B3) bonded
to GABA. Studies have shown that it rapidly crosses the blood-brain
barrier, however its effects are much greater and broader than just
taking a GABA and Niacin supplement.
The world's best-selling nootropic drug,
Piracetam, is purported to prevent and correct memory loss due to
old age, sharpening memory and improving clarity and attention to
detail. It is used to treat senile dementia and Down's syndrome.
A derivative of the amino acid GABA, Piracetam helps to restore
levels of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine. It also increases
the sensitivity of muscuarinic receptors, which decreases with age.
It brings about important metabolic modifications in nerve cells,
which results in greater receptiveness and increased use of chemical
energy by these cells.
Produced in the mitochondria throughout the
body from cholesterol, pregnenolone is the base material of all
human steroid manufacture, including DHEA, progesterone, testosterone
and estrogen. It appears to block the effects of cortisol, preventing
stress. Pregnenolone stimulates brain NMDA receptors. These receptors,
which decline with age, play an important role in the function of
synapses and neurons, influencing learning and memory. Pregnenolone
levels are directly correlated with cognitive ability. Pregnenolone
levels decline with age.
Procaine (GH3 And
The first drug suggested for use in reversing
aging in modern times, Romanian physician Dr. Anna Aslan suggested
in 1956 that procaine could be used to combat arthritis, arteriosclerosis,
senile skin changes and baldness. Procaine containing benzoic acid
has been shown to markedly improve the absorption of procaine by
fats, thus quickening its absorption by the human body. Procaine
also increases the speed with which the nerves conduct impulses,
and decreases the rate of excretion of the 17 kerosteroids, which
usually increases with age.
"The rehabilitation of, and incompetent structures such as
a ligament, or a tendon, by the induced proliferation of new cells"
(Webster's New International Dictionary). A ligament is a band of
fibrous tissue that holds bones together. Just like a rubber band,
a ligament can become "overstretched". The resulting laxity
can cause severe pain as bones rub together, or muscles are overworked
as they tighten in an attempt to stabilize the bones. Prolotherapy
is a treatment where a proliferate solution of natural substances
is injected directly into the site where the weakened ligament attaches
to the bone. Injections trigger the body's own immune system to
grow new and healthy tissue, which then properly stabilizes the
bones and joints, relieving musculoskeletal pain and stiffness.
Prolotherapy is one of the treatments of choice for chronic pain.
(see Vitamin B6)
Recent evidence suggests that a European medication called Pyritinol
may be an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease. When compared
Hydergine and placebo, Pyritinol produced continuous improvement
in cognitive function, which was more pronounced than in the Hydergine
group. Pyritinol is used in Europe for the treatment of a wide variety
of neurologic disorders.
RN13 is designed specifically to treat premature aging and geriatric
complaints. It acts on cell respiration and metabolism in organs
which are particularly affected by aging. RN13 contains 13 different
animal source RNAs, as well as vitamins, amino acids, procaine and
glutamic acid and biolecithin to improve cerebral activity. In the
body, RNAs are responsible for protein biosynthesis help repair
and regenerate body tissues and organs, and RN13 purports to work
on the principle that animal source RNAs from specific organs may
stimulate the same organs in humans. RN13 has been shown to make
aging individuals more alert and vital and to improve weak concentration,
defective memory, anxiety, troubled sleep and lack of appetite.
RN13's anti-aging benefits may include prevention
and treatment of premature aging and all types of age-related disorders,
lifting of apathy and potential increase in life span.
Pharmacology: A multi-combination product, of
which each liquid capsule contains macromolecular organ substances
out of embryo 0.37ng, placenta 0.1ng. amnion 6-pg, funiculus umbilical
60pg, cor 0.2ng, pancreas 0.1ng, mucosa intest 0.1ng, glandular
suprarenal 0.1ng, glandular parathyroid 20pg, testes juv. And fet.
0.2ng; as well as a mixture of the following drug additives; heparin
5x10-3IU, L-glutamic acid 10ug, methenolone acetate 4ng, trijod
thyroxin HCL 4pg, vitamin E 40ng, vitamin B12 40ng, vitamin B6 40ng,
p-amino benzoyldiethylaminoethanol HCL (Procaine) 8ng, biolecithin
10mg, trace elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca) 1.5ng, sodium dodecyl
sulfate 15ug, medium chained triglyceride 410mg.
Side Effects and Contraindications: Side effects
are rare, but may include mild irritation at the site of an injection
and minor allergic reactions such as a skin rash. People suffering
disturbances in purine metabolism, such as gout, should avoid RN13
therapy. Antibiotics and drugs that suppress the immune system may
inhibit RN13's efficacy.
Distribution: In severe cases, RN13 is administered
by injection and supplemented by ampules, or capsules. In less severe
cases, 2ml ampules and 0.5ml liquid capsules are available. VitOrgan
of Germany manufactures RN13 under the trade name NeyGeront.
Notes: A useful long-term supplement and designer
treatment aimed directly at improving the aged condition.
There has never been a study to test the effects on lifespan of
the trace mineral selenium, but an early study, which examined the
toxicity of selenium (and other minerals) found, by accident, that
it extended the lifespan of laboratory mice. There have been dozens
of studies showing that dietary selenium can help to prevent a wide
variety of cancers, and that it may be useful in the treatment of
cancer. Anyone taking selenium on a daily basis for antiaging purpose
should be careful to keep their doses low to avoid the possibility
of toxic side effects.
Sodium Oxybate (SO)
Sodium Oxybate (SO) is one of the controversial anti-aging drugs
available today. Normally referred to as GHB, its effects (as well
as its reputation) are varied and wide. SO has developed a rather
difficult reputation as a drug of abuse. Low to medium doses have
been used to treat alcohol withdrawal and as a mild general anesthetic.
Medium doses may act as a relaxant. At high doses, SO may be a potent
stimulator of human growth hormone, as well as a very powerful sleep
agent. It has been noted to double concentrations of dopamine in
the brain and appears to inhibit the release of dopamine from nerve
endings without preventing the manufacture of dopamine. Although
it has not been sufficiently studied clinically, SO is reported
to have a significant effect on the libido in both men and women.
SO's anti-aging benefits may include reduced fat
levels, improved muscle mass and condition, deep REM sleep, treatment
of insomnia and narcolepsy, improved libido and sexual performance
and the ability to act as a general relaxant and soothing agent.
Pharmacology: Sodium Gamma-hydroxybutyrate Wy-3478.
Chemical Name: Sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate Wy-3478. Chemical Name:
Sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate. Molecular Formula: C(4)(H)NaO(3) Molecular
Weight: 126.1 CAS Registry: 502-85-2. Also known as GHB.
Side Effects and Contraindications: Side effects
may include sudden sleep, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and headaches.
At higher doses, side effects may include a moderate slowing of
the heart, small changes in blood pressure and cardiac and respiratory
depression and also, in a few cases, muscle spasms, or twitches
as the patient enters SO-induced sleep. Patients suffering from
Cushing's disease, convulsions, bradycardia, severe cardiovascular
problems, severe hypertension, hyperprolactinemia, epilepsy, narcotic
drug dependence, individual hypersensitivity, or who are using depressants,
should avoid SO. It should not be used with alcohol.
Distribution: SO is available in liquid form in
vials of 10ml, 50mg, 100mg, 30ml and 140ml under the trade names
Alcover, Gamma-oh and Somsanit.
Notes: It would be highly advisable to ensure
that the patient informs his/her partner about the usage of SO.
This will ensure that s/he does not become frightened, if the patient
either undergoes muscle spasms/twitches before going into a deep
sleep, a sleep from which s/he is unlikely to be aroused for 2 to
4 hours. Unfortunately SO has received a lot of bad press. This
is likely due to people using the product in an incorrect manner
and under the wrong circumstances. Furthermore, there is concern
that since SO is a "desired" product, underground chemical
factories are producing impure, adulterated GHB (a situation which
would be dangerous for any substance destined for human consumption).
In the 1950s and 60s, Denham Harman of the University of Nebraska
Medical Center, the originator of the free radical theory of aging,
conducted a series of experiments in which he extended the mean
lifespan of short-lived mice with various synthetic antioxidants
up to 61%.
Although the decline in testosterone production
as men age (sometimes referred to as "andropause") is
not as dramatic as the drop in women's estrogen production with
the onset of menopause, testosterone decline is a serious issue
for many older men. Among other problems, declining testosterone
production is strongly associated with impotency and libido problems.
Thym-Uvocal contains a standardized combination of thymus peptides,
which may, in a natural manner, replace the decrease of thymic secretion
associated with increasing age. The thymus gland undergoes an age
related decrease in production of its various peptides. As thymus
factors have been correlated with the strength of the immune system,
Thym-Uvocal may help increase the strength of the immune system.
It appears to have a favorable action on the T-4 cell ratio, and
thus a stimulating and modulating action on the cellular immune
system. Thym-Uvocal increases levels of antibodies and phacytosis,
increases interleukin-1 production, and activates macrophages and
enhances their cell destruction action.
Thym-Uvocal's anti-aging benefits may include
improved strength of immune system, an increase in the thymic peptide
blood count, prevention and treatment of infection, treatment of
cancer, treatment of rheumatic disease, treatment of dermatology
disorders such as neurodermatitis, aphtosis and psoriasis, treatment
of skin allergic reaction and states of exhaustion, and management
Pharmacology: Contains protein-free dry substances
from calf thymus extract.
Side Effects and Contraindications: There is a
possibility of allergic minor reactions. Thym-Uvocal should be administered
to patients with thymic hyperfunction, such as myasthenia gravis,
thymic tumors and hypothyroidism.
Distribution: Thym-Uvocal is available in 2ml
ampules, topical cream and 240mg tablets. Mull of Germany manufactures
Notes: The elderly are the most important target
group for the administration of Thym-Uvocal and Thym-Uvocal's main
indications are disease of old age.
Thymic proteins are produced by the thymus gland, which plays an
important role in the immune system. Thymic proteins program T-lymphocytes,
the "shock troops" of the immune system. T-4 (helper)
cells are central to the functioning of the immune system, and are
activated by a certain thymic protein. This protein has been reported
to strengthen the immune system, fight viral infections, and stimulate
the bone marrow to produce more white and red blood cells, and fights
against future illness.
Thymic protein's anti-aging benefits may include
an increase in total white blood cell count, increased T-4 and T-8
levels, increase in total red blood cells and an increased potential
Side Effects and Contraindications: This thymic
protein should be avoided in patients taking large doses of steroid
Distribution: The standard dosage for healthy
people is 2 micrograms per day.
Trimethylglycine is a methyl donor supplement that assists in methylation
and may help protect cellular DNA from mutation. As humans age,
methyl groups can decrease. Mildly elevated levels of homocysteine,
an amino acid, have been found in 21 percent of patients with coronary
artery disease and 24 percent of patients with cerebrovascular disease.
Trimethylglycine aids in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.
Distribution: Trimethylglycine is available in
powdered form from Klabin Marketing.
One of the most potent nootropic drugs, vasopressin, is a hormone
secreted by the posterior portion of the pituitary gland. While
it may help prevent frequent urination, vasopressin's main use is
to treat memory deficits due to old age, senile dementia, drug toxicity
and amnesia. Whenever a memory is deposited in the brain, vasopressin
regulates the process. It helps select bits of information from
the stream of consciousness and forms this information into an image,
or concept, which is eventually transformed from an electrochemical
impulse into a chemically encoded long-term memory. Vasopressin's
benefits may include enhanced clarity, increased attention to detail,
improved short-term memory and improved memory imprinting (when
taken before an event, one can recall the event later in much greater
detail). Vasopressin is so powerful that it has been banned in some
California colleges for giving students an "unfair" advantage.
Vasopressin's anti-aging benefits may include
treatment and prevention of age-related mental decline, prevention
and treatment of senile dementia, improved short-term memory, attention
and clarity, enhanced memory imprinting, and treatment of diabetes
Pharmacology: Synonyms: L-8; Lipressina: LVP.
Chemical Name: (8 lysine) Vasopressin; Cys-Try-Phe-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Lys-Gly-NH(2)
cyclic (1->6) disulphide. Molecular Formula: C(46)H(65)N(13)O(12)S(2)
Molecular Weight: 1056.2 CAS Registry: 50-57-7 (Vasopressin is normally
Lypressin, a synthetic hormone, or extracted from pigs' pituitary
glands. The other hormone Pitressin, or Argipressin, which is extracted
from all other mammals, including man.
Side Effects and Contraindications: Side effects
include rhinorrhoea and nasal itchiness, headaches, conjunctivitis,
sore throat, nausea, abdominal pain and the urgent need to defecate
as a result of increased peristalsis. Vasopressin is contraindicated
for patients suffering from coronary insufficiency, or using halothane,
or cyclopropane anesthetics. It should be administered with caution
in cases of hypertension, epilepsy, advanced arteriosclerosis, or
any case where increased blood pressure is to be avoided.
Distribution: Vasopressin is available in 5ml,
or 12ml nasal sprays under the trade names Diaped Lypressin Injection
BP 1993, Lypressin Nasal Solution USP 23, Neo-Lidocaton TM, Postacton,
Postacton TM, Syntopressin, Vasopresina, Vasopressin, Vasopressin
TM, Vasopressine, and Vasopressine TM.
Notes: Vasopressin is a commonly used nootropin.
For general anti-aging purposes, it is recommended that it only
be used when required and that it is avoided by anyone suffering
from a cardiovascular problem.
Vinpocetine improves brain energy and blood
supply and has been used as a preventative and as a treatment for
stroke and other brain injury. It acts as a cerebral metabolic activator,
which may improve cerebral circulation and enhance oxygen and glucose
utilization in the brain. Vinpocetine may diminish, or reduce, disturbances
due to hypoxia, or to deficient cerebral metabolism. It has been
noted to improve oxygen and glucose utilization by brain cells and
increase their resistance to damage by hypoxia.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic
Pantothenic acid (PA), a B-complex vitamin, is essential for humans
and animals for growth, reproduction, and normal physiological functions.
It is a precursor of the coenzymes, CoA and acyl carrier protein
of fatty acid synthase, which are involved in more than 100 different
metabolic pathways including energy metabolism of carbohydrates,
proteins and lipids, and the synthesis of lipids, neurotransmitters,
steroid hormones, porphyrins and hemoglobin.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine is part
of the B group vitamins and is water-soluble and is required for
both mental and physical health.
The major fat-soluble compound that protects our cell membranes
against oxidative damage. It can break the self-perpetuating chain
of oxidative reactions in unsaturated fatty acids in membranes.
Vitamin E also helps maintain the antioxidant activity of selenium,
and works with this trace mineral to help boost immune function.
There have been highly persuasive studies in humans showing that
regular vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of heart attacks in
both men and women, and that it can protect us from several types
Yohimbine is a pharmaceutical preparation derived from the bark
of a tree, called the Corynanthe Yohimbine, which has been useful
in the treatment of impotence. Yohimbine acts upon the alpha 2 adrenergic
nerve cells and blocks their receptiveness to neurotramsmitter activity.
It is theorized that inhibition of these cells increases the blood
flow through the penis, while at the same time reducing the flow
of blood from the penis. Furthermore, Yohimbine increases blood
levels of the neurotramsmitter norepinephrine, one of the body's
own prosexual chemicals affecting the hypothalamus. Yomhimbine may
also increase levels of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that has
an effect on male erection response.
The anti-aging benefits of Yohimbine are purported
to be the improvement of strength, duration and response of male
erection, libido enhancement and improved sexual performance.
Pharmacology: Synonyms: Aphrodine Hydrochloride:
Chlorhydrate de Quebrachin; Corynine Hydrochloride. Chemical Name:
Methyl 17alpha hydroxy-yohimban-16alphacarboxylate hydrochloride.
Molecular Formula: C(21)H(26)N(2)O(3), HCL Molecular Weight: 390.9
CAS Registry: 146-48-5 (Yohimbine); 65-19-0 (Yohimbine hydrochloride).
Side Effects and Contraindications: Yohimbine
is likely to be more sensitive in the elderly, where it can lead
to over stimulation to the point of nervousness and anxiety. Other
side effects may include nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure,
tremors, dizziness and headaches. Patients with inflammatory disease
of the urogenital tract, known or suspected prostate or mammary
cancer, hypercalciuria, ischemic heart disease, untreated congestive
heart failure, glaucoma, extrapyramidal disorders and hyperexcitable
states should avoid Yohimbine.
Distribution: Yohimbe is available in 1mg, 2.5mg,
5mg and 10mg tablets under the trade names Aphrodyne, Dayto Himbin,
Plain Prowess, Yocon and Yohimes.
Notes: Yohimbine is a pharmaceutical preparation
derived from the bark of a tree called the Corynanthe yohimbine.
It should not be confused with Yohimbe, which although is often
the ground down bark of this tree, is not a pharmaceutical preparation
and likely to contain???? a minute amount of Yohimbe.
Pharmacology: Synonyms: Aphrodine Hydrochloride:
Chlorhydrate de Quebrachine; Corynine Hydrochloride. Chemical Name:
Methyl 17 alpha hydroxy-yohimban-16alpha-carboxylate hydrochloride.
Molecular Formula: C(21)H(26)N(2)O(3),HCL Molecular Weight: 390.9
CAS Registry: 146-48-5 (Yohimbine); 65-1 O (Yohimbine hydrochloride).